Test for detection of shortages


Minerals perform important functions as cofactors in many enzymatic processes in our body.

A deficiency of one mineral can lead to a situation that certain processes function less well, or even (undesirable) go faster. This can be explained because minerals work as antagonists (minerals with opposite effects like copper – zinc) or function as synergists (reinforce each other effect such as calcium, magnesium and zinc). Therefore, the mutual relationship of minerals, the “balance ratio” is of great importance. This ratio has on its own reference values. Minerals research has been used formany yearsfor identifyingdeficienciesin diseases. For example, one can examinehigh blood pressureor edema by measuring sodium and potassium. Some people do these examination to preventthese diseases.When a deficit is found, additional minerals will have to be taken, and after a certain time have to be checked if the deficit is eliminated. Some minerals in the body can be very favorable in a certain shape, but less favorable, or even toxic in a different shape. Mineral research can therefore also be used to investigate the toxic load.

Read more about dectection of shortages

For a long time now, mineral testing has been an important topic of discussion. Minerals are found in the body almost exclusively in organic complexes. In order ro quantify them, these structures must first be destroyed before the minerals can be measured as free ions. The quantity of minerals within the cell is, in certain cases, several times higher than that outside the cell or in serum. If there are problems collecting blood and many red blood cells die from restricted flow caused by the tourniquet, or if the collecting tube is only partially filled, this may lead to misinterpretations. Hospitals located at higher altitudes in particular have problem with such analysis. If patients come for blood collection by bike on a hot summer’s day, their mineral values are also much higher. To avoid misinterpretations,  many tests are carried out using whole blood.

Since some unused tubes may contain traces of minerals, it is better to use special minerals tubes which are characterized by the blue stopper. When serum or plasma is poured into plastic tubes, these should also be free of minerals. Furthermore, it is important that patients stop any mineral supplementation well before the day of the test.

Another option is an amino acid analysis. Since minerals play crucial roles in certain body processes, such processes will be less efficient in the absence of these minerals. The quantity of amino acids that are normally converted into other amino acids by these processes will be increased, whereas the amino acids produced by such processes will be reduced. In this way, many deficiencies can be detected easily by analysis.


Vitamins (such as vitamin B2 (FAD), vitamin B3 (NAD (P)) and vitamin B5 (Co-enzyme A)) play important roles  as co-factors in the body. For example, they play a role in the formation of energy from carbohydrates, the formation of connective tissue and also in  detoxification. The active forms of vitamins are much more potent than the inactive forms. A marginal deficiency of a particular vitamin will result in sub-optimal functioning of multiple processes, and eventually lead to symptoms or diseases.

Many vitamins behave as synergists, reinforcing the effect of each other, therefore deficiency of a specific vitamin will also negatively affect the function of another. However, supplementing vitamins can also create new deficiencies. For example, giving a high dosage of vitamin B2 for a long period of time can cause  vitamin B1 and B6 deficiencies in milk allergy.

The measurement of vitamin levels is carried out to determine deficiencies in the case of illness, but can also be carried out in order to maintain good health. Further research is being carried out to investigate the effects of supplementation.

The interpretation of vitamin test results is challenging and mistakes are often made. When the conversion of vitamin B6 to its active forms is disturbed, as in the case in HPU, the vitamin B6 level can be quite elevated, even in those who does not take vitamins at all. This often leads to misinterpretation and arrival at a false conclusion by practitioners.